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Table 2 Validation and agreement statistics (with 95% confidence intervals) for the LifeShirt system during day & night and at low & high respiration rates. Values are calculated values for the sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), positive predictive-value (PPV), negative predictive-value (NPV), accuracy (ACC) and the kappa statistic. Values in parentheses are the 95% confidence intervals. All values are for LS system compared to video documentation of cough events; * p-value < 0.0001 for night vs. day comparisons of period for SN, SP, NPV and ACC; ¶p-value < 0.0001 for night vs. day comparisons of respiratory rate for SN, SP, PPV, NPV; ‡ p-value = 0.004 for day vs. night comparisons of respiratory rate for ACC. Day period defined as 0600–1800; Night period defined as 1800–0600. Patients were assigned to the low or high respiratory rate group based on whether their mean Fb was below or above the median Fb (median = 21 br·min-1).

From: Evaluation of an ambulatory system for the quantification of cough frequency in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

   Period Respiratory Rate
  Combined Day Night Low High
SN 78.1 (76.7, 79.4) 76.7 (75.1, 78.2) 82.7 (80.0, 85.1)* 69.5 (66.3, 72.6) 80.6 (79.0, 82.0)¶
SP 99.6 (99.5, 99.6) 99.6 (99.5, 99.6) 99.7 (99.7, 99.8)* 99.5 (99.5, 99.6) 99.7 (99.6, 99.7) ¶
PPV 84.6 (83.3, 85.8) 84.5 (83.0, 85.8) 85.0 (82.3, 87.3) 69.8 (66.5, 72.8) 89.4 (88.1, 90.5) ¶
NPV 99.4 (99.3, 99.4) 99.3 (99.2, 99.3) 99.7 (99.6, 99.7)* 99.5 (99.5, 99.6) 99.3 (99.2, 99.3) ¶
ACC 99.0 (99.0, 99.1) 98.8 (98.8, 98.9) 99.4 (99.3, 99.5)* 99.1 (99.0, 99.2) 99.0 (98.9, 99.0)‡
Kappa 80.7 (79.7, 81.7) 79.8 (78.6, 81.0) 83.5 (81.5, 85.5) 69.2 (66.6, 71.7) 84.2 (83.1, 85.3)