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Table 2 Symptoms intensity during bronchoconstriction

From: Cough and dyspnea during bronchoconstriction: comparison of different stimuli

Stimuli Cough (total of episodes) Dyspnea – Borg Dyspnea – VAS
Bradykinin 72.40 ± 69.26* 3.60 ± 2.30 3.26 ± 2.47#
Methacholine 18.15 ± 20.58 3.40 ± 2.40 2.94 ± 2.32
Exercise 5.95 ± 8.22 2.10 ± 2.00 2.12 ± 2.05
  1. Mean ± Standard Deviation.
  2. * # Significant differences (p < 0.05) in comparison with other stimuli according to linear mixed-effects model.