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Table 3 Pairwise comparisons according to linear mixed-effects model of modified Borg scale, visual analogue scale (VAS) and cough (logarithmic scale).

From: Cough and dyspnea during bronchoconstriction: comparison of different stimuli

Cough
Comparisons Mean Difference* 95% CI p-value
   Bradykinin × Exercise 2.79 (1.83; 3.76) < 0.01
   Bradykinin × Methacholine 2.22 (1.12; 3.32) < 0.01
   Exercise × Methacholine -0.58 (-1.69; 0.53) 0.31
Dyspnea – Borg
Comparisons Mean Difference* 95% CI p-value
   Bradykinin × Exercise 1.20 (-0.41; 2.81) 0.15
   Bradykinin × Methacholine 0.59 (-1.23; 2.43) 0.52
   Exercise × Methacholine -0.60 (-2.46; 1.25) 0.52
Dyspnea – VAS
Comparisons Mean Difference* 95% CI p-value
   Bradykinin × Exercise 1.76 (0.09; 3.42) 0.04
   Bradykinin × Methacholine 2.28 (0.39; 4.18) 0.02
   Exercise × Methacholine 0.53 (-1.39; 2.44) 0.59
  1. CI: confidence interval. *The model was adjusted by intercept, age, gender, atopy status, body mass index, FEV1, baseline FEV1, bradykinin, methacholine and exercise, baseline symptom, inhaled corticosteroid dose and tests sequence.