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Table 1 Demographics, clinical data, and procedural observations for the study population and for groups by procedural posture.

From: Posture influences patient cough rate, sedative requirement and comfort during bronchoscopy: An observational cohort study

  All patients Supine Semi-recumbent p-value*
n 69 33 36  
Age 62 ± 14 64 ± 16 61 ± 13 NS
Males (%) 42 (61) 19 (58) 23 (64) NS
Smoking status     
- Current smokers (%) 15 (22) 9 (27) 6 (17) NS
- Ex-smokers (%) 33 (48) 16 (49) 17 (47) NS
- Non-smokers (%) 21 (30) 8 (24) 13 (36) NS
Inpatients (%) 26 (38) 11 (33) 15 (42) NS
Baseline SpO2 97.0 ± 2.2 96.9 ± 2.4 97.1 ± 1.9 NS
Baseline pulse rate (/min) 77 ± 13 76 ± 13 77 ± 13 NS
% predicted FEV1 70 ± 19 67 ± 21 74 ± 17 NS
% predicted FVC 78 ± 17 79 ± 19 77 ± 14 NS
Oral route (%) 31 (45) 15 (45) 17 (47) NS
Initial phase (min) 3.7 ± 1.3 3.9 ± 1.5 3.6 ± 1.1 NS
Cough rate (/min) 4.8 ± 3.7 6.1 ± 4.5 3.6 ± 2.3 0.007
Sedative use     
- Midazolam (mg) 3.5 ± 1.7 4.0 ± 2.0 3.1 ± 1.2 0.029
- Fentanyl (mcg) 79 ± 30 88 ± 28 70 ± 29 0.011
Nadir SpO2 93.4 ± 4.6 93.3 ± 4.3 93.6 ± 4.9 NS
Fall in SpO2 3.6 ± 4.2 3.6 ± 3.6 3.6 ± 4.7 NS
Peak pulse rate (/min) 92 ± 16 91 ± 17 94 ± 15 NS
Rise in pulse rate (/min) 16 ± 13 16 ± 12 16 ± 14 NS
Maximal O2 use (L/min) 3.0 ± 1.8 3.0 ± 2.1 3.0 ± 1.5 NS
Questionnaire     
- Nurse VAS discomfort 31 ± 26 39 ± 28 23 ± 21 0.01
- Patient VAS recall 49 ± 35 51 ± 35 47 ± 36 NS
- Patient VAS discomfort 24 ± 23 22 ± 23 27 ± 23 NS
- Patient VAS cough 33 ± 27 40 ± 28 28 ± 25 0.067
- Patient 1-4 repeat 1.2 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.4 NS
  1. Values shown as mean ± SD or number (%).
  2. * p-values shown for comparisons between supine and semi-recumbent groups.
  3. VAS responses measured in mm from the left end of the visual analogue scale.
  4. FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; FVC, forced vital capacity; SpO2, oxygen saturation; VAS, visual analogue scale; NS, not significant at > 0.05.